MSW -Waste to Energy

Waste to Energy Continues to Gain Steam
While new energy solutions are being discovered, refined and brought further and further into the public light, something that does not get a lot of headlines is waste to energy. How something like this continues to not be used in the United States is incredible as countries like Japan have been using it for quite some time and dramatically improving their waste disposal problems in highly populated areas

Getting Biofuel from the World’s Garbage
There is plenty of garbage on this planet; in fact there is so much garbage that many developed countries are trying to dump their garbage on the lands of lesser developed countries, at a fee of course. But does dumping garbage on other places solve the problem? On the contrary it spreads pollutions and diseases. In fact it is more dangerous to dump garbage in the less developed countries (because there are neither technologies available to process it nor enough awareness). Even creating landfills wastes precious resources



Company Profile

COMPANY PROFILE
About Us:
GKNS Energy privately owned Integrated Solid waste and recycling Company of passionate innovators and thought leaders who are working strategically with global partners to foster awareness about Green/ Sustainability, while supporting development of next generation with this technologies and Resources that will lead to a sustainable planet for current and future generations.
As an important step in this strategic direction, we now would like to venture ourselves into strategic project with the vision of contributing to the development of the country with our technology, resources, and infrastructure as well as our services. We understand that honesty, commitment to our employees and community, and the endless search for improvement are the reasons for our past success and the foundation for our future growth. Living in the communities we serve, we are committed to improving them. The catalyst behind its growth and success summed up in one word: family.

GKNS Energy Vision of targeted growth, aggressively seeking opportunities, but taking a disciplined approach to investment and expansion Our focus has been on the development of an economical and effective network for waste transfer to Energy and disposal, designed to sustain constant and stable returns on our investments, as well as steady growth preserving the quality of the environment.

GKNS Energy Mission: Plan – Source – Deliver to Generate Electricity; Manage Environmental Solutions aspiring to realize measurable value to our clients and investors through Profitable growth through superior innovation, quality and commitment.
Safety:
GKNS Energy considers no department in the company more important than safety and compliance. Our facilities are developed, built and operated with regulatory compliance and safety as top priorities. Compliance with local and International regulation is also a priority For Us. Our facilities and those who operate them strive to exceed these important requirements while recognizing the needs of our stakeholders.
Statement of Values:
We are partners with the communities that host our facilities. In this role, we are sensitive to the needs of the community well beyond the services that we provide. We pride ourselves on giving back to our communities as good corporate citizens – Services
Slogan / Motto: Our Passion is Turning Waste into Energy -‘We are working for our Environment”

INDIAN WASTE TO ENERGY SCENARIO
India is one of the most promising environmental markets in Asia and offers significant opportunities for Renewable Energy Sector. The total environmental technologies and services market in India is expected to grow to US$9 billion by 2010. The hazardous waste technologies and services component – estimated at over US$223 million in 2006 – is likely to grow by 7 per cent annually until 2010. Presently about 960 million tones of solid waste are being generated annually in India
From industrial, mining, municipal, agricultural and other processes, of these approximately 350 million tones are organic wastes from agricultural sources; 290 million tones are inorganic waste of industrial and mining sectors and 4.5 million tones are hazardous in nature.

Industrial Solid Waste – The industrial sector is the largest contributor of solid and hazardous waste in India, followed by bio-medical and healthcare facilities and waste recycling facilities.

Municipal Wastes - Solid waste generated in India’s largest cities exceeds 100,000 MT/day (approximately 36.5 million tons annually), most of which is disposed of in landfills (94 per cent). In many centers the collection, transportation and disposal of municipal wastes are carried out in unhygienic ways that poses serious risks for carriers, people working or scavenging in dumping areas, and to others living nearby. Ground water in dumping areas is highly contaminated. Deteriorating sanitary conditions and waste management problems are being exacerbated by the growing concentrations around waste sites of unskilled, unemployed and poorly educated people who have migrated from rural areas. This estimation is based on the structured data base prepared for 299 Class I cities and 36 Class II cities as part of “National Master Plan for Development of Waste to Energy in India” being taken up under UNDP/GEF assisted Project on “Development of High Rate Biomethanation Processes”. The study concluded that 17(6%) cities have generation rate in excess of 1000 TPD, and 80 cities (26%) generate 150 to 1000 TPD. The balance 202 cities (68%) individually generate less than 150 TPD. The municipal solid waste (MSW) generation ranges from 0.25 to 0.66 kg/person/day with an average of 0.45 kg/person/day. In addition, large quantities of solid and liquid wastes are generated by industries. Most of the wastes generated find their way into land and water bodies, without proper treatment, emitting gases like Methane (CH4), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), etc, resulting in bad odor, air and water pollution, as well as increase in the emission of green house gases. This problem can be significantly mitigated through adoption of environment-friendly waste-to-energy technologies for treatment and processing wastes before disposal. It not only reduces the quantity of wastes, but also improves its quality to meet the required pollution control standards, besides generating substantial quantity of energy

Electricity can be produced by burning “municipal solid waste” (MSW) as a fuel. MSW power plants, also called waste to energy (WTE) plants, are designed to dispose of MSW and to produce electricity as a byproduct of the incinerator operation.
The term MSW describes the stream of solid waste (“trash” or “garbage”) generated by households and apartments, commercial establishments, industries and institutions. MSW consists of everyday items such as product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, cloths, bottles, food scraps, newspapers, appliances, paint and batteries. It does not include medical, commercial and industrial hazardous or radioactive wastes, which must be treated separately.
MSW is managed by a combination of disposal in landfill sites, recycling, and incineration. MSW incinerators often produce electricity in WTE plants. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends, “The most environmentally sound management of MSW is achieved when these approaches are implemented according to EPA’s preferred order: source reduction first, recycling and composting second, and disposal in landfills or waste combustors last
Technology for Treatment of MSW
Various technological options are available for setting up of waste-to energy projects. Some of these are described below.
Anaerobic Digestion/Biomethanation
In this process, the organic fraction of the waste is segregated and fed into a closed container (biogas digester). In the digester, the segregated waste undergoes biodegradation in presence of methanogenic bacteria and under anaerobic conditions, producing methane-rich biogas and effluent. The biogas can be used either for cooking/heating applications, or for generating motive power or electricity through dual-fuel or gas engines, low-pressure gas turbines, or steam turbines. The sludge from anaerobic digestion, after stabilization, can be used as a soil conditioner. It can even be sold as manure depending upon its composition, which is determined mainly by the composition of the input waste.
Combustion/Incineration
In this process, wastes are directly burned in presence of excess air (oxygen) at high temperatures (about 800 ºC), liberating heat energy, inert gases, and ash. Combustion results in transfer of 65%–80% of heat content of the organic matter to hot air, steam, and hot water. The steam generated, in turn, can be used in steam turbines to generate power.
Pyrolysis/Gasification
Pyrolysis is a process of chemical decomposition of organic matter brought about by heat. In this process, the organic material is heated in absence of air until the molecules thermally break down to become a gas comprising smaller molecules (known collectively as syngas).
Gasification can also take place as a result of partial combustion of organic matter in presence of a restricted quantity of oxygen or air. The gas so produced is known as producer gas. The gases produced by Pyrolysis mainly comprise carbon monoxide (25%), hydrogen and hydrocarbons (15%), and carbon dioxide and nitrogen (60%). The next step is to ‘clean’ the syngas or producer gas. Thereafter, the gas is burned in internal combustion (IC) engine generator sets or turbines to produce electricity.
Landfill Gas recovery
The waste dumped in a landfill becomes subjected, over a period of time, to anaerobic conditions. As a result, its organic fraction slowly volatilizes and decomposes, leading to production of ‘landfill gas’, which contains a high percentage of methane (about 50%).It can be used as a source of energy either for direct heating/cooking applications or to generate power through IC engines or turbines.
Plasma arc
Plasma arc technology is a relatively new technology for disposal of wastes, particularly, hazardous and radioactive wastes. This technology is now being seen as an attractive option for disposal of MSW as well
List of Project Developers in Andhra Pradesh
Addresses of the Project Developers of Municipal Solid Waste Based Power Projects
Sl.
No Name & Location of the Project Capacity
1. M/s. Selco International Ltd., Elikkta (V), MBNR Dist. 6.6 MW.
Municipal Solid Waste Based Power project
2. M/s. Sri Ram Energy Systems Ltd., Vijayawada, & Guntur 6.0 MW.
Waste to Energy projects
3. M/s.RDF power projects Ltd, Nalgonda District. 11.0 MW
Municipal Solid waste Based Power project
4. Vijayawada Municipal 3255 Kwh/per Day (0.15 MW)
5. M/s. Visakhas Energy Systems Ltd., Visakhapatnam 6.6. MW
Municipal Solid waste Based power project
6. M/s. Shalivahana Projects Ltd 7.6 MW
Municipal Solid Wasted Based Power Project

Purpose of the Proposed Project Activity:
The purpose of the proposed project activity is to address the vexatious issue of handling MSW by
GHMC, especially disposal of MSW Rules of 2000 which leads to emission of methane and also occupies a substantial portion of precious urban land, as it is disposed off in waste disposal sites, the activity will also export renewable energy into the grid and to some extent will help in mitigating the energy deficit in India. The proposed project activity will lead to GHG emission reduction in following manner:

1. Avoidance of methane emission which would otherwise happen due to anaerobic decomposition
Of MSW in the existing waste disposal site and reduce the landfill and ground water decontamination and Methane gases
2. Power exported from the proposed project activity will reduce the fossil fuel usage and Governmental Ruler Mission for the light project

Project Scope and Activity:
Title in CDM: AM0025 / Version 11 – “Avoided emissions from organic waste through alternative waste treatment processes” is applicable to the proposed project Scope and Activity:
 A composting process in aerobic conditions.
 The proposed project activity will involves mechanical treatment of waste to produce refusederived fuel (RDF) for the fresh waste that in a given year would have otherwise been disposed of in an unscientific landfill.
 The physical and chemical properties of the produced RDF fluff shall be homogeneous and constant over time.
 The produced compost will be used as soil conditioner
 In case of RDF processing, the produced RDF fluff will not be stored in a manner that may result in anaerobic conditions before its use.
 The proportion and characteristics of different types of organic waste processed in the proposed project activity can be determined, in order to apply a multiphase landfill gas generation model to estimate the quantity of landfill gas that would have been generated in the absence of the proposed project activity.
 The proposed project activity includes electricity generation from RDF combustor of the RDF produced. The electricity generated is exported to the grid and RDF used for electricity generation can be monitored.
 Waste handling in the baseline scenario shows a continuation of current practice of disposing the waste in a landfill despite environmental regulation that mandates the treatment of the waste.
 The compliance rate of the environmental regulations during the crediting period is expected to be below 50%
 Local regulations do not constrain the establishment of RDF production plants nor the use of RDF as fuel.
 The project proponent will provide evidence that no GHG emissions occur, other than biogenic CO2, due to chemical reaction during the thermal treatment.
 The proposed project activity does not involve thermal treatment process of neither industrial or hospital waste.

S No Waste Type Dry %
1. Organic Fraction/Bio-mass 35.00 %
2. Paper 5.00%
3. Rubber Etc 00.05%
4. Glass 00.05
5. Metals 00.05
6. Stones 20.00%
7. Wood and Bio Mass 15.00%
8. Sand and Earth 15.00%

Our Technology
GKNS Energy Private Limited going to employ the best proven technology in energy recovery from wastes with the use of 600 TPD to Generate 8.5MW with a kind cooperation of RDF Power Project Ltd with installed capacity of 11 MW
Brief Technology Description
The reverse acting reciprocating grate technology used for the proposed project activity is a state of an art technology and is being implemented for the for an Integrated Waste Management Project. Implementation of the proposed project activity would help in promotion and replication of similar technology in other areas of the country. The two-segment reciprocating stroke system, which considers the characteristics of municipal solid waste such as lower heat value and higher water content, owns advantages of being applied to a broad heat value, having a good load adjusting capacity and operation performance and highly automatic. These technologies can efficiently combust RDF fluff without the support of any other fossil fuel and also lead to sustained combustion.

Preparation of Waste Input Material:

All “hard” materials such as stones, glass, metals, ceramics and the like, have to be removed. The incoming waste which arrives at the plant with moisture of 60-65% has to be dried to residual moisture of less than 17%.

The waste is dumped into the receiving area and then picked up by a Payloader equipped with a crusher shovel. A coarse grinding mechanism built into the shovel opens plastic bags and reduces the particles to <50 mm. Oversize parts such as bicycle frames, refrigerators, etc. remain in the shovel and can be simply tilted out.

The pre-shredded material passes a magnetic separator as well as an Eddy-current separator and is subsequently sent through our proprietary autoclave system where it is broken down to fluff.

Conversion of MSW to RDF fluff

Receipt of MSW:
GKNS Energy Will collect daily 600 TPD from GMCH Dumping Sites to plant having a distance of 40 KM with the help of Tipper trucks or lorries that will bring the MSW will be weighed on the weighbridge station at the plant before they are unloaded in the MSW Receiving Yard of the plant. MSW from the MSW Receiving Yard will be lifted by Grab Crane and put on the Inclined Feeding Belt Conveyor. The MSW feeding by Grab crane is also expected to homogenize the MSW prior to feeding and will be considered as an alternative. Herbal disinfectant-cum-deodorant will be sprayed on the MSW to reduce mal-odor and repel insects and birds

Steam Generating System
The steam generating system for the power plant will consist of Two (2) No. Reverse acting and reciprocating type grate fired boiler of capacity 28 TPH with outlet steam parameters of 40 ata, 400 Deg.C. The boiler shall be semi-outdoor unit and shall be of single drum, natural circulation, balanced draft, and membrane wall radiant furnace design with two-(2) stage super heaters and inter stage de-super heater. The main and design fuel will be MSW to RDF

Homogenization:
Inclined Feeding Belt Conveyor will feed MSW into a Rotary Screen-I to de-lump and to remove dust, sand, earth and other inert materials of less than 40 mm particle size. Dust, sand, earth and other inert materials separated in this process will be extracted and transferred to a Composting
Yard through a Compost Transfer Belt Conveyor. Rotary Screen-I will deliver MSW on a Horizontal Sorting Conveyor Belt to separate big objects by manual activity, which may spoil the downstream equipment, like machinery parts, lead acid batteries, big stones, tyres, etc. The big objects that are separated will be picked up and dropped through gravity – chutes on the ground for on-ward disposal. Large sized inert and noncombustible objects like boulders, construction debris, large trees cuttings, etc. will be lifted manually and disposed to designated landfill sites. The Horizontal Sorting Conveyor will deliver MSW to Rotary Screen-II. Rotary Screen-II will separate MSW into two fraction:
Fraction#1 RDF fluff – = 100 mm
Fraction # 2 RDF fluff will fall on the Belt Conveyor and will be delivered to the Fuel Storage Pit
For feeding into the boiler.

Solar Drying:
MSW in the country has been generally found to have high moisture content even during nonrainy days and requires drying to produce fuel with reasonable heating value. Fraction#1 RDF fluff will be transferred by Extraction and Transfer Belt conveyor to the Intermediate Storage
Yard and will be dried in the Solar Drying Yard.

Magnetic Separation:
Fraction#1 RDF fluff will be transferred from Solar Drying Yard to Magnetic Separation Unit for removal of ferrous components from the garbage for recycling. RDF fluff from Magnetic Separation Unit will fall on the Belt Conveyor and will go to Fuel Storage Pit for feeding into boiler
Flue-gas cleaning system:
• The flue-gas enters the flue-gas cleaning system downstream of the HRSG. The plant is equipped with a dry flue-gas cleaning system consisting of a bag-house filter, a storage silo for lime and activated carbon and a filter dust silo
• Lime and activated carbon is injected at the inlet of the bag house filter
• The lime absorbs acid components in the flue-gas, while activated carbon adsorbs dioxin, TOC and heavy metals

Power Generation: The power generation plant will support combustion of RDF fluff. It will include receiving and feeding system, refuse incineration, waste heat utilization, flue gas treatment, automatic control system, electrical equipment, ash disposal system, water supply and drainage system and compressed air system. The power project will install two boilers and one extraction cum condensing turbo generator for power generation. The project will optimize power generation with one stage of feed water heating. Extraction of steam and its usage in the Deaerator for feed water heating will improve the efficiency of the plant.

RDF fluff will be combusted in the boiler on reverse acting reciprocating grate to generate steam. Following are the boiler specification of boilers to be used:
Steam Generation 56 TPH
Pressure 40 ata
Temperature 400oC + 5oC
Steam generated in boilers will be fed to the single extraction condensing turbo generator. The uncontrolled extraction from the turbine at 5.4 ata will give approximately 6.87 TPH of steam at a temperature of 180°C. This steam will be entirely used for heating up the feed water in the thermal deaerator. In addition to this steam, the flash steam recovered from the boiler blow down tank can be used in the deaerator. The flash steam from the continuous blow down tank, equivalent to 0.237 TPH will be led into the deaerator for supplementing the steam supplied from the turbine extraction for deaeration. Balance of steam will be supplied to the turbine, a quantity of 52.6 TPH of steam, being the difference between input and extracted steam quantities will be exhausted to the surface condenser of the power turbine. Condensate from the condensate tank of surface condenser will be pumped to the feed water system by the condensate extraction pumps. In addition to the above quantity, the condensate from the gland steam condenser and the ejector condensers amounting to a total approximate quantity of 0.476 TPH will be added to the feed water system through the condensate tank The power project, after meeting its in house consumption, will export to Grid
Control and monitoring system
• The plant is equipped with a separate proprietary control-and-monitoring-system
• The system performs automatic control of the process during normal operating conditions and gives the opportunity to monitor the different process sections through the man-machine interface. All information is available for the operator via a screen
• The system is designed for remote control and monitoring of the plant. Safety and security is paramount in all aspects of the design
• Logging of process parameters, including emissions monitoring parameters, is controlled in a separate data logging system
• Safety is taken care of in a separate and independent emergency shutdown system
• The emissions to air such as dust, CO, HCl, Hg, TOC, SO2, NOx, O2, H2O and CO2 are continuously monitored and displayed
Utilities:
The GKNS Energy plant is equipped with the following utilities:
• Electrical system
• Emergency power generating unit
• Air supply system
• Re-circulated flue-gas system
• Compressed air system
• Hydraulic system
• Water cooling system
• Oil cooling system
• Leach ate from MSW Receiving Yard and Fuel Storage Pit will be collected in Neutralization Tank for COD and BOD as per local Norms